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What is a Skull Fractures? How does it occur and the symptoms associated with its occurrence?

 A skull fracture is any fracture that occurs in the bones of the skull. There are different types of skull fractures, but they all occur for one reason:

Injuries or a blow to the head that is strong enough to break a bone.

A fracture can also accompany a brain injury, but this is not always the case. And it is not always easy to see the fracture. However, symptoms that could indicate a fracture include:

  • Swelling and swelling around the area of ​​impact.
  • Facial bruising.
  • Bleeding from the nose or ears.

Types of skull fractures

The type of skull fracture depends on:

  • strike force.
  • The site of the injury is in the skull.
  • The shape of the body hitting the head.

Different types of fractures lead to different levels of injury and trauma. Types of skull fractures:

closed fracture

Also known as a simple fracture, the skin overlying the fracture area is not broken or cut.

open fracture

Also known as a compound fracture, this occurs when the skin breaks and bone is exposed.

low fracture

It occurs when a fracture causes the skull to expand or extend into the brain cavity.

basal fracture

Occurs at the base of the skull, namely:

  • The areas around the eyes, ears, and nose.
  • or in the upper part of the neck near the spine.

Other types of fractures

In addition to the above types, fractures can also be classified as:

  • Linear (break in a straight line).
  • Comminuted (a fracture divided into three or more sections).

Causes of skull fractures

A skull fracture occurs when a force strikes the skull, enough to break the bone. Any type of injury to the head can cause a skull fracture. This includes:

  • hitting a body
  • the fall.
  • Hit the ground.
  • Head injury in a car accident.
  • Any other type of shock.

You must go to the hospital immediately if you suffer any head injury.

Skull fracture symptoms

In some cases, an "open and low fracture" skull fracture may be easy to see. But sometimes, the fracture isn't obvious. Serious symptoms of a skull fracture include:

  • Bleeding from the wound, near the site of the trauma, or around the eyes, ears, and nose.
  • Bruising around the injury site, under the eyes, or behind the ears.
  • Severe pain at the site of the injury.
  • Swelling at the site of the injury.
  • Redness at the site of the injury.

Less severe symptoms may include:

  • Headache.
  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • blurred vision
  • Insomnia.
  • irritability;
  • loss of balance
  • stiff neck.
  • The eye does not react to light.
  • confusion.
  • excessive drowsiness;
  • fainting;


A doctor may be able to diagnose a fracture simply by performing a physical examination of the head. However, it is helpful to diagnose the extent and nature of the damage.

Doctors can use various imaging tests to get a clearer picture of the type of fracture you have and how extensive it is. Such as:

  • X ray.
  • Computed tomography.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging.

These give typical ways to visualize the body and can help a doctor diagnose skull fractures.

X-rays provide an image of the bone. While an MRI takes an image of the bones and soft tissues. This allows the doctor to see the fracture of the skull and brain.

The most common tool used is:

Computed tomography. This test usually provides the clearest picture of the fracture and any brain damage because it produces a 3-D image.

skull fracture treatment

Treatment varies with the severity of the fracture, and the type of treatment depends on the severity of the fracture. Pain medication may be the only treatment necessary for mild fractures, while neurosurgery may be necessary for more serious injuries.

Treatment also depends on several factors. The doctor will take into account:

  • the age.
  • The general health of the patient.
  • Medical history.
  • In addition to:
  • fracture type.
  • its severity.
  • Any resulting brain injury.

Most skull fractures are not very painful, and they heal on their own. In some cases, such as in basilar skull fractures, medications to control pain may be all that is needed.

However, a basilar fracture may require surgery if it results in excessive leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that cushions and surrounds the brain and spinal cord) from the nose and ears.

Surgery is often a required course of treatment for low skull fractures if the low fracture is severe enough. This is because these fractures are difficult to heal on their own.

Low skull fractures may not only lead to cosmetic problems but may also lead to further injury to the brain if the fracture is not treated properly. Surgery may also be necessary if the fracture is pressing on the brain or if there is a leak of cerebrospinal fluid.

Preventing skull fractures

Skull fractures can be prevented. and that is done by:

Wear protective headgear when cycling

Head protection when participating in other sports where head injuries may occur, such as:

  • football.
  • rock climbing.

Skull fractures are considered one of the most dangerous injuries to humans, as they may cause many health problems and may lead to the patient losing his life. So you have to deal with these injuries with great importance, even if they are just minor injuries.