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What is acquired brain injury? and treatment methods

 Acquired brain injury refers to any type of brain damage that occurs after birth. It can include damage from infection, disease, lack of oxygen, or a blow to the head.

How does a brain injury occur?

A human brain injury can occur through:

  • Shock, infection, or hypoxia: for example, during near drowning, suicide attempts, strokes, or overdose.
  • Tumors or neurodegenerative diseases.

Causes of acquired brain injury

An acquired brain injury is any brain damage that occurs after birth. Specific symptoms or loss of functionality depending on which areas of the brain are affected. Some of the reasons include:

  • Brain poisoning due to taking some narcotic drugs.
  • Certain diseases: such as AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, or Parkinson's disease.
  • Oxygen deficiency.
  • Physical injury: eg, a blow to the head, or a fall.
  • Stroke: When a blood vessel within the brain breaks or becomes blocked, destroying local brain tissue.

How does this injury affect the person?

The long-term effects of a brain injury are difficult to predict, as they vary from person to person and according to the type and degree of injury.

It is common for many people with acquired brain injury to experience increased fatigue (mental and physical fatigue) and some slow in the speed at which they can process information, plan, think and solve problems. They may also experience changes in their behavior and personality, physical and sensory abilities, or in their thinking and learning.

How does the brain work?

The human brain contains countless billions of cross-links. It works using a combination of electrical and chemical means. The brain also oversees all bodily processes and gives us consciousness and personality.

The human brain is divided into two halves. Hemisphere of the left brain and half of the right brain. Each half is divided into lobes. The brain contains cerebrospinal fluid, and this fluid nourishes the brain and acts as a shock absorber. The brain is also connected to the rest of the body through the spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system.

brain injury

Traumatic brain injuries differ from head injuries, in that a person can injure the face, scalp, and skull without necessarily injuring the brain. Traumatic brain injury is a form of acquired brain injury and refers to brain damage caused by a collision with the head.

When the head is hit hard, the brain hits the inside of the skull, causing physical injuries such as bruising, swelling, bleeding, sprains, or ruptures of tissue. There are degrees of injury, ranging from a temporary loss of consciousness to a long-term episode of loss of consciousness or coma.


Several diagnostic tests help pinpoint areas of brain damage accurately. These tests include:

  • X ray.
  • Brain CT and MRI scans.


Recovery depends on the extent and location of the brain damage, the person's age and general health, and how quickly first aid and treatment are received. In some cases, emergency surgery may be required.

Mild traumatic brain injury usually doesn't require treatment other than rest and pain relievers to treat the headache.


Medications that reduce secondary damage to the brain soon after an injury may include:

Anti-seizure medications.

Coma-inducing medications: The doctor may recommend placing the patient in a temporary coma.

Diuretics: These drugs reduce the amount of fluid in the tissues and increase the amount of urine. It also reduces pressure in the brain.


Emergency surgery may be needed to limit further damage to brain tissue. Surgical options include:

  • Removal of clotted blood (hematoma): Bleeding outside or inside the brain can cause clotted blood to pool and press on the brain causing damage to brain tissue.
  • Skull fracture repair: Surgery may be needed to repair severe skull fractures or to remove parts of the skull that are in the brain.
  • Brain hemorrhage: You may need surgery to stop the bleeding.
  • Reducing intracranial pressure: Surgery may be used to relieve pressure within the skull by draining the accumulated cerebrospinal fluid or opening part of the skull to make more room for swollen tissue.

In most cases, psychological and moral support is the first step in the treatment and recovery process.